In the February 2016 Edition of the Radical Designist, A Design Culture Journal (ThRAD) João Figueiredo, Nuno Correia, Inês Secca Ruivo and Jorge Lino Alves of Portugal wrote an article comparing design approaches.
The article, Transdisciplinarity and Design: Comparative Review and Synthesis for the Design Process, is written succinctly offering little elaboration on technicalities of applying the compared models, but SWOT analyses are provided for each model making the differences easier to understand.
The authors proposed a synthesis to foster the cooperation between engineering and industrial design for holistic cooperation beginning in conceptual phases. The authors synthesized model also promotes continuous interaction between phases. The implication also suggests between stakeholders if transdisciplinarity is desired.
The article was supported by the Portuguese Innovation Agency, within the frame of Project NEWFace of the Program of Incentives to Technological Research & Development and the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology and the MITPortugal Program.